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Basketball: How the Game Started

It all started with a child's game that the inventor, Dr. James Naismith used to play outside his schoolhouse when he was younger. This game was called duck-on-a-rock, it aimed to knock the duck off the rock by tossing another rock against it.

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It all started with a child's game that the inventor, Dr. James Naismith used to play outside his schoolhouse when he was younger. This game was called duck-on-a-rock, it aimed to knock the duck off the rock by tossing another rock against it.

This then gave Dr. Naismith a concept of a game which he introduced to the students of YMCA Training School in 1891. Due to the cold weather, the trainees of the School for Christian Workers needed a game that could be played indoors and one that wouldn't use much strength. He then conceptualized a ball game that uses two baskets as goals with both teams competing for the most number of shots.

Apart from the game itself, he also outlined the first 13 rules on playing the game which covers the guidelines, distinction of violations and fouls, and the roles of both umpires and referees, including the duration of each game.

Thus, these events led to the actual birth of the game in December 21, 1881 when it was first played after Dr. Luther Gulick, the head of physical education at the YMCA, gave a two-week allowance for his employee to create a new game.

While the game would be developed in the following years, the students of the YMCA Training School loved it initially. It was even said that Dr. Naismith had a difficult time convincing his students to leave the game after each session.

The game went on to be played in the Olympics in Berlin, Germany where the USA Team beat the Canadian team with a score of 19-8. At this time, there were 22 nations that joined the competition. By 1976, Women's Basketball was introduced into the Olympics.

On August 3, 1949 in New York City, the National Basketball Association was formed. But prior to that were the creations of National Basketball League (NBL) in 1937 and Basketball Association of America (BAA) in 1946. The NBA now serves as the largest group in the history of basketball. There are only two leagues left which retained their names since the formation of NBA, the New York Knicks and Boston Celtics.

The first women's collegiate basketball was splayed on April 4, 1896 in San Francisco's Page Street Armory where Cal and Stanford met. Unlike the physical and strenuous game we now see in WNBA, the women basketball teams back in 1896 retained their ladylike approach in the game and rules were even modified to accommodate this natural tendency. Stanford then won with a 2-1 score against Cal team.

These events led to the popularity of basketball in our time.

 

Basketball: The Object of the Game

Basketball is a fast paced game played on a 94-by-50 foot court (NBA) with 1 basket on opposite sides.

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Basketball is a fast paced game played on a 94-by-50 foot court (NBA) with 1 basket on opposite sides.

The game starts when the official tosses the ball between two players, one from each team, in the middle of the court. This is also referred to as the tip off. The other 8 players stand at specific places outside the mid-circle. The jumpers will try to tip the ball to any of their team members to gain the first possession.

The goal is to score more points than their opponents.

In the professional setting, the game is divided into 2 halfs or 4 quarters. Each quarter is 12 minutes long.

During each possession, the offensive team has a time limit to shoot the ball in the basket. This is called the shot clock. The NBA rule allows 24 seconds for each possession. In college basketball, the shot clock is set for 35 seconds.

There are basically 2 ways to shoot and score in a basketball game: shooting when the ball is in play and from the free throw line.

There are several ways to score during play. You can either take a perimeter shot or drive toward the basket. You can score 3 points if you shoot the ball beyond the arc. There are also variations for jump shots including from the baseline, the key, fade away, hook shot, and more. Variations of shots made inside the paint include dunk, layup, and tip-in.

Free throws are earned when the opposing team committs a technical foul or a personal foul. Two free throw shots are awarded when the opposing team committs a technical foul or a personal foul in the act of shooting or within the team penalty. One free throw shot is given to the player who made a shot and receives a foul in the process.

Each player is allowed to commit 5 personal fouls for each game to continue playing. The 6th foul will automatically force the player to retire for the rest of the game. Each player is automatically out of the game if he receives 2 technical fouls. The team is allowed to commits 5 fouls for each quarter before entering the penalty. Every foul made inside the penalty will put their opposing team to shoot free throws.

In the event where the scores are tied at the end of the fourth quarter (or at the end of the regulation period), a 5-minute overtime period is played. If the score is still tied at the end of the overtime period, a second overtime will be played, and so on... until a team wins a game.

Note: other basketball leagues and basketball associations such as FIBA follow their own sets of rules.

 

Different Types of Basketball Violations

Violations can be committed both by the offense and the defense. Here are those:

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Violations can be committed both by the offense and the defense. Here are those:

Violations committed by the offense:

Traveling or walk violation - is committed when the ball handler takes too many steps without dribbling the ball. This usually occurs after rebounding, after receiving the ball from the pass, and when making a move to drive towards the basket.

Backcourt violation or over-and-back - is committed when the player holding the ball crosses over the mid court line then returns at the back court. This also happens when the player from the front court passes the ball to his teammate in the backcourt.

Double dribble - is a violation involving the ball handler. This violation is committed when the player dribbles with both hands or if the player dribbles, holds the ball, and starts dribbling again.

Offensive foul - is committed when the ball handler attacks to the basket and deliberately hits the defending player with an established stance.

Offensive goal tending - is called when the player attempts to interfere with the ball while it is on the rim or on the way down to the basket. If this happens, the basket won't count.

Five-second inbound violation - happens if the inbounder isn't able to pass the ball to his teammate after 5 seconds.

Three-second violation - is called when the offensive player stays inside the paint for 3 seconds.

Ten-second backcourt violation - is committed if the offensive team isn't able to cross the ball to the mid-court within 10 seconds.

Violations committed by the defense:

Foul - is called against the defensive player if he makes an illegal contact with the ball handler. A foul can also be called even if the player involved is away from the ball. A foul can be caused of blocking, holding, pushing, charging, and tripping.

Intentional foul - is an intentional foul used to stop the clock or to send the opposing player to the free throw line.

Goaltending - is a violation where the defending player interferes with the ball on its way down to the basket or while it is on the rim regardless if it is going to go in or not. The ball counts if goaltending is called.

Illegal defense - is also called 3-second defensive violation. It is used to keep the defensive team from using the zone defense.




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