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Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenager

 

Clinical Manifestations of Appendicitis in Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren

Appendicitis is known to be a surgical disease, as it commonly requires removal of the inflamed vermiform appendix, a tubular prominence of the cecum. Appendicitis occurs due to infection of the vermiform appendix, which becomes enlarged and irritated.

treatment for appendicitis, appendicitis, acute appendicitis, symptoms of appendicitis, signs of appendicitis, chronic appendicitis

Appendicitis is known to be a surgical disease, as it commonly requires removal of the inflamed vermiform appendix, a tubular prominence of the cecum. Appendicitis occurs due to infection of the vermiform appendix, which becomes enlarged and irritated. Doctors consider appendicitis to be a medical emergency and they usually recommend surgery regardless of the actual stage of the disease. Although the surgical treatment for appendicitis is known to be safe and reliable, many patients develop post-operative complications as a consequence of malpractice. There are also various reported cases of unnecessary appendectomy, performed on patients who eventually turn out to have a healthy appendix.

While the surgical intervention for appendicitis involves few risks in the early stages of the disease, advanced infection of the vermiform appendix greatly increases the risks of post-operative complications. The removal of a seriously diseased appendix is difficult and risky, as the operated patients can develop sepsis or abcess soon after the surgical intervention. Well aware of this fact, most physicians focus on timely revealing possible symptoms of appendicitis in patients. Guided by the impulse of intervening promptly, some doctors often mistakenly perform surgery on healthy patients. There were various cases of unnecessary appendicitis surgery reported in the last decades and the phenomenon can also be seen in present.

The cases of unnecessary appendicitis surgery can be easily explained by the deceiving nature of this very common disease. Appendicitis often generates unspecific symptoms which can be misleading in the process of deciding upon the correct diagnosis. Appendicitis is commonly mistaken for various other internal disorders that generate resembling symptoms. To further complicate the matter, sometimes patients with appendicitis may actually be asymptomatic. In such cases, the specific manifestations of appendicitis emerge late after the disease becomes serious.

Although doctors can choose among various medical techniques in order to confirm their presumptive diagnosis, none of the tests available nowadays is 100 percent reliable in revealing clear physiological signs of appendicitis. Considering this fact, surgeons incline towards assuming the risk of removing a healthy appendix rather than allowing the disease to progress further. Delayed medical intervention can be fatal for appendicitis sufferers and this is the main reason why surgeons often choose to timely perform appendectomy on patients who present possible clinical symptoms of the disease.

The overall number of cases of unnecessary appendectomy has known a slight decline in recent years. However, statistics indicate that in present more than 9 percent of pediatric appendectomies are performed on patients who actually have a healthy appendix. This is due to the fact that very young Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren and infants are more difficult to correctly diagnose with appendicitis. By contrast, the cases of unnecessary appendectomy among adult patients are nowadays more rare.

In present, malpractice and misdiagnosis of appendicitis can be considered to be indicators for the lack of precision of the existent medical techniques. Therefore, modern medicine needs new, more reliable means of diagnosing internal disorders such as appendicitis.

 

Clinical Thermometers and Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren's Health - Part II

In Part 1 the need for a clinical thermometer in the home was explained, and in this final part the areas of the body used for temperature measurement are explained together with the types of thermometer available and how they should be used.

Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerhood diseases, clinical thermometers, how to use clinical thermometers, how to take a Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagers temperature, how to measure a Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagers temperature

Copyright 2006 Peter Nisbet

Body temperature is usually measured by indirectly measuring the temperature of the blood. Its accuracy is dependent on both the equipment used and the area of the body used for the measurement. Several factors can affect the accuracy, among them recent exercise, how wrapped up (or ‘bundled’) a young Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenager has been and even the environmental temperature.

Rectal temperature is the most accurate of the common methods, but I do not recommend untrained people use this method with Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren. It can also be inaccurate since rectal temperature responds very slowly to quick changes in core body temperature. For these reasons I shall not dwell on this method. Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren also frequently object to it.

The best option for Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren under three months old is probably an axillary reading. If you want one thermometer to do all jobs, I would go for an ordinary digital thermometer and restrict the measurements to armpit and oral.

An armpit (axillary) measurement is the easiest and most familiar method, but is the most inaccurate. The measuring area of the thermometer has to be directly over the axillary artery, and this is not easy to achieve with squirming Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren. If the Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenager is older, oral measurement is simple and more accurate than the armpit.

The most accurate method is by use of a modern tympanic thermometer, which measures temperature in the ear canal. This is very close to core temperature and modern types are not affected by ear wax. They are more accurate than rectal measurements, but not recommended for Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren under three months. However, please bear in mind that a parent is not expected to make an accurate measurement: just sufficient to decide if a doctor should be called. As I state below any temperature of 38C (100.4F) or above warrants this.

Types Of Thermometer

Glass thermometers have been largely superseded by digital types, and are much safer to use with Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren and just as accurate. They are designed for specific uses such as tympanic, rectal and oral/axillary. Were I just starting up a family again, I would go the expense of a tympanic type, but my kids are now grown up and there is no need, so I use a standard digital thermometer for oral and armpit use.

There are plastic strip or dot thermometers available, which are stuck to the skin and change colour to indicate temperature. These are very inaccurate and useful only to indicate if a Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenager’s temperature is higher than normal or not. They may indicate a fever, but not what the temperature actually is. They do the same job as the ‘hand on the forehead’.

You can also get thermometers shaped like baby’s pacifiers, or ‘dummies’. These are also inaccurate since they need to stay in the mouth for a certain period of time which, as most mothers know, is just about impossible!

Of all the types of thermometer on the market, the ear, or tympanic, type is the most accurate. However, most parents will find a standard digital thermometer to be financially more viable and able to meet most parents’ requirements. Once a doctor has been called, he will be able to make a much more accurate measurement. Your job is to be equipped to carry out the initial measurement which indicates to you whether or not you should call a doctor.

If your Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenager’s temperature reaches 38C (100.4F) you should call a doctor. I personally would call a doctor rather than take the Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenager to the surgery since there may be people there at special risk from whatever disease your Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenager may have. Remember, a disease is often at its most infectious before the symptoms appear.

How To Use A Thermometer

Always read the manufacturer’s instructions. There may be calibration instructions which are required before the first (sometimes every) use, and operating instructions. Many emit a signal when the measurement is complete, and some allow you to store readings. Some require the previous measurement to be cleared before making another. There are also usually specific cleaning and sterilising instructions.

The instructions usually tell you when not to measure a Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenager’s temperature, such as immediately after exercise, after a bath or consuming hot or cold food or drink.

Oral Readings: You are measuring the temperature of the blood in the lower surface of the tongue. Wait at least 15 minutes after eating and drinking then place the end of the thermometer under the tongue and ask the Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenager to hold it steady with the tongue and lips, but not to bite. The measurement will be complete after 3 – 4 minutes.

Axillary Readings: Here you are measuring the blood temperature in the axillary artery. You can locate the position of this artery with your fingertips. It is best to remove the clothing first, then place the tip of the thermometer over the artery. Fold the Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenager’s arm across the chest to hold the thermometer steady. Again, 3 – 4 minutes should be enough, though a digital thermometer will normally beep when measurement is complete.

Rectal readings (if necessary): lubricate the tip of the thermometer with a suitable lubricant. If the instructions do not recommend one, your pharmacist will help. Lie the Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenager face down on a suitable surface (changing table, bed or your lap with a small Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenager), place your hand firmly near the base of the spine to hold him still then gently insert the thermometer probe about an inch into the anus (there should be no resistance – if there is then stop. Do not try to force the thermometer). Cup your hand round the Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenager’s bottom with the thermometer held between the fingers to keep it still until the reading has been completed.

 

Choosing Appropriate Toys for Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren with ADHD

There is no "cure" for ADHD, but there are effective ways to manage this condition once diagnosed.

Choosing Appropriate Toys for Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren with ADHD

Choosing just the right toy for any Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenager can be difficult. But the challenge is magnified if you are looking for the perfect gift to give one of the 4.4 million Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren affected by attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren who have ADHD may have special play needs, so I urge parents of my young patients to buy toys that help their Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren focus, gain self-confidence and learn to socialize and interact appropriately with other Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren. The following suggestions may be helpful:

• LEGOS/Building Blocks: Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren with ADHD often have trouble completing lengthy tasks because they become frustrated and discouraged. LEGOS and building blocks are hands-on toys that are simple to use and have only a few pieces so Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren can create a single structure in a relatively short period of time, which may help build their confidence.

• Chapter Books: Books with short chapters help your Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenager focus and stay attentive. Read aloud one or more chapters each night or have your Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenager read to you.

• Dress Up: All Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren, but especially kids with ADHD, can benefit from dramatic play and artistic expression, which allow them to be creative and express feelings in a fun and nonjudgmental environment. So give them a box of costumes, puppets or a playhouse. Watching a play is a great way for family members to connect with a Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenager and provide lasting memories. It is important to also keep in mind that people with ADHD are often intelligent, friendly, creative and determined. These strengths should be encouraged from an early age.

• Easel and Paint Set or Play-Doh: Art supplies such as paint and clay give Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren with ADHD an opportunity to express themselves in a nonverbal way. Art supplies also help Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren gain self-confidence since there is no right or wrong way to use them.

• Floor Puzzle: Giving Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren something simple to do, such as a floor puzzle, helps build confidence. Choose a recognizable pattern or shape that won't intimidate them. Ideas include the solar system and the alphabet.

• Swimming, Skating, Martial Arts or Music Lessons: Physical activity is encouraged for Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren who have ADHD. Sign them up for lessons in a structured sport or hobby, which can provide a valuable outlet for all their energy.

There is no "cure" for ADHD, but there are effective ways to manage this condition once diagnosed. Medication may be part of a treatment plan designed to control your Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenager's ADHD symptoms. Currently, stimulant medications such as Adderall XR are considered a first-line treatment option for ADHD. The active ingredients in these medications have been used medically for nearly 70 years.

It's important to consider a Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenager's strengths when choosing toys.

Important Safety Information: Adderall XR was generally well tolerated in clinical studies. The most common side effects in studies included: Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren-decreased appetite, difficulty falling asleep, stomachache, and emotional lability; adolescents-loss of appetite, difficulty falling asleep, stomachache, and weight loss; adults-dry mouth, loss of appetite, difficulty falling asleep, headache, and weight loss.

Adderall XR may not be right for everyone. Patients should speak with their doctor if they have a history of high blood pressure or any heart conditions, glaucoma, thyroid problems, emotional instability, mental illness, or a known allergy to this type of medication. Abuse of amphetamine may lead to dependence. Misuse of amphetamine may cause sudden death and serious cardiovascular adverse events. These events have also been reported rarely with amphetamine use.

If you are currently taking or have recently taken a type of antidepressant called a MAO inhibitor or have a pre-existing structural heart abnormality, you should not take Adderall XR. There is a potential for worsening of motion or verbal tics and Tourette's syndrome. A patient should report any new psychological symptoms to his or her physician.

Dr. Harry Verby is the medical director of the Behavioral Medical Clinic in San Mateo, Calif., and specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of attention-deficit disorder and related co-morbid conditions in Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren, adolescents and adults.




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