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Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenager

 

Teach Your Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenager Phonological Awareness

Phonological awareness skills are key to reading success.

Phonological awareness is an important foundation for learning to read. Scientific research has documented that phonological awareness is a better predictor of reading success than IQ, vocabulary, or socioeconomic level of the family.

Research has shown that Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren who begin reading instruction with sufficiently developed phonological awareness understand the instruction better, master the alphabetic principle ...

preschool, early Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerhood, kid, read, alphabet, literacy, book, kindergarten, parent, reading

Phonological awareness skills are key to reading success.

Phonological awareness is an important foundation for learning to read. Scientific research has documented that phonological awareness is a better predictor of reading success than IQ, vocabulary, or socioeconomic level of the family.

Research has shown that Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren who begin reading instruction with sufficiently developed phonological awareness understand the instruction better, master the alphabetic principle faster and learn to read quite easily.

Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren who will later be identified as being dyslexic often do not have phonological awareness skills. Teaching these skills has been shown in research to prevent the occurrence of dyslexia in many Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren. Accordingly, many school systems now follow a program of early screening for phonological awareness skills.

No area of reading research has gained as much attention over the past two decades as phonological awareness. Perhaps the most exciting finding emanating from research on phonological awareness is that critical levels of phonological awareness can be developed through carefully planned instruction, and this development has a significant influence on Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren’s reading and spelling achievement.

Why Is Phonological Awareness So Important?

An awareness of phonemes is necessary to grasp the alphabetic principle that underlies our system of written language. Specifically, developing readers must be sensitive to the internal structure of words.

If Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren understand that words can be divided into individual phonemes and that phonemes can be blended into words, they are able to use letter-sound knowledge to read and build words. As a consequence of this relationship, phonological awareness is a strong predictor of later reading success. Researchers have shown that this strong relationship between phonological awareness and reading success persists throughout school.

Early reading is dependent on having some understanding of the internal structure of words, and explicit instruction in phonological awareness skills is very effective in promoting early reading. However, instruction in early reading — especially instruction in letter-sound correspondence — strengthens phonological awareness.

Success in early reading depends on achieving a certain level of phonological awareness. Instruction in phonological awareness is beneficial for most Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren and critical for others.

What Is Phonological Awareness?

Phonological awareness is the ability to break words into separate sounds. A Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenager who has phonological awareness can tell you when two words rhyme and when two words start with the same sound. Further development of phonological awareness will allow the Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenager to tell you when two words end with the same sound. For example, they can tell you that “bat” and “sit” end with the same sound but “bat” and “sad” do not end with the same sound.

Phonological awareness is a broad term that includes phonemic awareness. In addition, to phonemes, phonological awareness activities can involve work with rhymes, words
, syllables, and onsets and rimes.

The key to the process of learning to read is the ability to identify the different sounds that make words and to associate these sounds with written words. In order to learn to read, a Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenager must be aware of phonemes. A phoneme is the smallest functional unit of sound. For example, the word cat contains three distinctly different sounds. There are 44 phonemes in the English language, including letter combinations such as /th/.

In addition to identifying these sounds, Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren must also be able to manipulate them. Word play involving segmenting words into their constituent sounds, rhyming words, and blending sounds to make words is also essential to the reading process. The ability to identify and manipulate the sounds of language is called phonological awareness. There are five levels of phonological awareness ranging from an awareness of rhyme to being able to switch or substitute the components in a word.

Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren generally begin to show initial phonological awareness when they demonstrate an appreciation of rhyme and alliteration. For many Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren, this begins very early in the course of their language development and is likely facilitated by being read to from books that are based on rhyme or alliteration.

Teaching Phonological Awareness

Early experience with nursery rhymes can help Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren begin to notice and think about the phonological structure of words. Several research studies have shown that the Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren who know more about nursery rhymes at age 3, are those that tend to be more highly developed in general phonological awareness at age 4 and in phonemic awareness at age 6.

You don’t have to stop with nursery rhymes though. Read rhyming books and sing rhyming songs and chants. Have Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren identify the rhyming words using picture cards and do rhyming sorts with picture cards.

Also play games that teach Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren to isolate individual sounds in a word. For example, this game can be played with the “BINGO” song. There was a letter had a sound and you can say it with me b, b, b, like ball…… Play the game – “What’s the First Sound in this Word” This can be done orally or with picture cards

When Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren learn how to “listen to language”, they are also learning to connect oral language with the written word. Once they hear, know, and are able to manipulate sounds, they begin to realize how words work.

 

Teach Your Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenager Phonemic Awareness

In recent years, the field of reading education has changed dramatically and many reading instructors have divided it between phonic instruction and whole language. Various reading programs that fall into one of the two camps have spent millions advertising the relative merits of both.

The simple truth of the matter is that the best reading instruction takes place using a combination of both strategies. And increasingly reading research has demonstrated that phonemic aware...

preschool, early Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerhood, kid, read, alphabet, literacy, book, kindergarten, parent, reading

In recent years, the field of reading education has changed dramatically and many reading instructors have divided it between phonic instruction and whole language. Various reading programs that fall into one of the two camps have spent millions advertising the relative merits of both.

The simple truth of the matter is that the best reading instruction takes place using a combination of both strategies. And increasingly reading research has demonstrated that phonemic awareness, not simply phonics, is critically important to ensuring reading success–especially for students with learning disabilities.

However what makes this so confusing for many parents and caregivers is that the term “phonemic awareness” is tossed around so often and in so many different ways. Phonemic awareness concerns the structure of words rather than their meaning. To understand the construction of our written code, words, readers need to be able to reflect upon the spelling-to-sound correspondences. To understand that the written word, beginning readers must first have some understanding that words are composed of sounds (phonemic awareness) rather than their conceiving of each word as a single indivisible sound stream.

The development of this awareness cannot be accomplished in one simple step but rather over time. It is also important to note that these skills are actually pre-reading skills. Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren do not necessarily recognize any of these elements on the page but rather by ear.

The stages of phonological development toward the end goal of deep phonemic awareness can include:

~ Recognition that sentences are made up of words.
~ Recognition that words can rhyme & the ability to make rhymes
~ Recognition that words can be broken down into syllables & the ability to do so
~ Recognition that words can be broken down into onsets and rimes & the ability to do so
~ Recognition that words can begin with the same sound & the ability to make these matches
~ Recognition that words can end with the same sound & the ability to make these matches
~ Recognition that words can have the same medial sound(s) & the ability to make these matches
~ Recognition that words can be broken down into individual phonemes & the ability to do so
~ Recognition that sounds can be deleted from words to make new words & the ability to do so
~ Ability to blend sounds to make words
~ Ability to segment words into constituent sounds

Phonemic awareness is more complex however than simple auditory discrimination, which is the ability to understand that cat and mat are different words. To be able to describe how they are similar and how they are different demonstrates a level of phonemic awareness. Young Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren are not normally asked to consider words at a level other than their meaning, although experience with rhymes may be the first indication for Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren that they can play with the structure of words.

Learning to recognize and play with rhyme is often the beginning of phonemic awareness development for many Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren. To be aware that words can have a similar end-sound implies a critical step in learning to read. Sensitivity to rhyme makes both a direct and indirect contribution to reading.

Directly, it helps Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren appreciate that words that share common sounds usually also share common letter sequences. Later exposure to common letter sequences then makes a significant contribution to reading strategy development.

Indirectly, the recognition of rhyme promotes the refining of word analysis from larger intra-word segments (such as rhyme) to analysis at the level of the phoneme (the critical requirement for reading).

Studies show a very strong relationship between rhyming ability at age three and performance at reading and spelling three years later. A number of studies have reinforced the value of such early exposure to rhyming games.

Rhyming and phoneme awareness are related. Studies have shown that Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren who are capable of good discrimination of musical pitch also score high on tests of phonemic awareness. Since pitch change is an important source of information in the speech signal, it may be that sensitivity to small frequency changes, such as that involved in phoneme recognition is an important aspect of successful initial reading. Such results raise the interesting possibility that musical training may represent one of those pre-reading, home-based experiences that contribute to the marked individual differences in phonemic awareness with which Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren start school.

So, what do you teach? Techniques that target phoneme awareness most frequently involve direct instruction in segmenting words into component sounds, identifying sounds in various positions in words (initial, medial, final), identifying words that begin or end with the same sound, and manipulating sounds in a word such as saying a word without its beginning or end sound.

Most of the phoneme awareness activities should not take more than 15 or 20 minutes to complete. Although a particular activity can be selected well in advance, the specific words targeted for phoneme awareness should be selected from material familiar to your Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenager — such as a book you recently read together or a game or a family outing. Phoneme awareness activities are a natural extension of the shared reading activities.

A natural and spontaneous way of providing Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren with exposure to phonemes is to focus on literature that deals playfully with speech sounds through rhymes. Simple rhyme patterns are easily recalled after repeated exposure, and Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren will get the idea of creating new rhymes. In “There’s a Wocket in My Pocket” (Seuss, 1974), initial sounds of everyday objects are substituted as a Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenager talks about the strange creatures around the house, such as the “zamp in the lamp.” Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren can make up their own strange creatures in the classroom such as the “zuk in my book.”

Alliteration is the repetition of an initial consonant sound across several words, such as presented in the alphabet book “Faint Frogs Feeling Feverish” and “Other Terrifically Tantalizing Tongue Twisters”.

Assonance, the repetition of vowel sounds within words, is often combined with rhyme, as in “It rains and hails and shakes the sails” from “Sheep on a Ship” or in humorous ways such as “The tooter tries to tutor two tooters to toot” in “Moses Supposes His Toeses Are Roses”. Some books include music to go with the rhymes, such as “Down by the Bay”, in which two Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren try to outdo one another in making up questions that rhyme, such as “Did you ever see a goose kissing a moose?”

Spend some time in the Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren’s section of your library or browse through your Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenager’s bookshelves at home to look for books that deal playfully with language. Read and reread the stories and comment on the language use then encourage predictions of sound, word, and sentence patterns (for example, “What sound do you hear at the beginning of all those words?”) and invent new versions of the language patterns utilized in the stories.

Research has demonstrated not only a predictive relationship between phoneme awareness and reading success, but also a causal relationship.
Phoneme awareness that has a positive impact on reading can be developed in Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren through systematic instruction. Early training in phoneme awareness should be a priority for those interested in improving early reading instruction and in reducing reading failure.

Some other activities include:

Making Word Families Charts: Charts can contain words from one story or a brainstormed list from the Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren. The Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren can dictate the words to be placed on a word family chart. As they begin to develop letter/sound knowledge, they can copy or write the words themselves. You can use magnetic letters to “create” words for a word family chart. Provide a rime of plastic letters (e.g., at) and have the Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren take turns placing different letters in the onset position to create new words (e.g., hat, bat, sat, rat). These charts can be used as reference charts (or the Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren can make their own word families reference book) for spelling and creative writing activities.

Odd Word Out: Four words, three of which rhyme, are presented (e.g., zveed, bead, pill, seed). The Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenager determines which word is the odd one that doesn’t belong with the others. The game of concentration or memory is a good practice activity for rhyme recognition.

Alliteration: Sound personalities can be introduced naturally and in context by selecting a particular sound to talk about that is stressed in alphabet or other books that use alliteration. For example, presenting “smiling snakes sipping strawberry sodas” for the alphabet letter S. It is helpful to create or provide pictures that represent these sound personalities and to post them as each is introduced. A natural connection can sometimes be made between the sound and the letter, such as presenting a picture of “Sammy snake” drawn in the shape of the letter S or “Buzzy bee” flying in a pattern of the letter Z. Besides providing a label to facilitate talking about sounds, the pictures provide self-correcting cues for Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren engaged in initial-sound isolation and sound-to-word matching activities.

Counting: To count syllables in words, activities can be used such as clapping hands, tapping the desk, or marching in place to the syllables in Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren’s names (Ma- ry), items in the immediate environment (win- dow), or words from a favorite story (wi-shy, wa-shy). Initially, two- syllable words can be targeted, building up to three.

Sound Synthesis: Sound synthesis can be done using the following sequence: blending an initial sound onto the remainder of a word, followed by blending syllables of a word together, and then blending isolated phonemes into a word. Model this by blending an initial sound onto a word by using the jingle “It starts with /n/ and it ends with -ight, put it together, and it says night.” When they have the idea, the Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren supply the final word. An element of excitement can be created by using Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren’s names for this activity and asking each Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenager to recognize and say his or her own name when it is presented- “It starts with /m/ and it ends with -ary, put it together an
d it says ———.” Context can be provided by limiting the words to objects that can be seen in the room or to words from a particular story the Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren just read. As the Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren become proficient, they can take turns using the jingle to present their own words to be blended.

Sound-to-Word Matching: Requires that the Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenager identify the beginning sound of a word. Awareness of the initial sound in a word can be done by showing the Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren a picture (dog) and asking the Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren to identify the correct word out of three: “Is this a /mmm/-og, a /d/d/d/-og, or a /sss/-og?” A variation is to ask if the word has a particular sound: “Is there a /d/ in dog?” This can then be switched to “Which sound does dog start with-/d/, /sh/, or /1/?” This sequence encourages the Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren to try out the three onsets with the rime to see which one is correct. It is easiest to use continuants that can be exaggerated and prolonged to heighten the sound input. Iteration should be used with stop consonants to add emphasis.

 

Teach Your Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenager Phonemic Awareness

In recent years, the field of reading education has changed dramatically and many reading instructors have divided it between phonic instruction and whole language. Various reading programs that fall into one of the two camps have spent millions advertising the relative merits of both.

The simple truth of the matter is that the best reading instruction takes place using a combination of both strategies. And increasingly reading research has demonstrated that phonemic aware...

preschool, early Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerhood, kid, read, alphabet, literacy, book, kindergarten, parent, reading

In recent years, the field of reading education has changed dramatically and many reading instructors have divided it between phonic instruction and whole language. Various reading programs that fall into one of the two camps have spent millions advertising the relative merits of both.

The simple truth of the matter is that the best reading instruction takes place using a combination of both strategies. And increasingly reading research has demonstrated that phonemic awareness, not simply phonics, is critically important to ensuring reading success–especially for students with learning disabilities.

However what makes this so confusing for many parents and caregivers is that the term “phonemic awareness” is tossed around so often and in so many different ways. Phonemic awareness concerns the structure of words rather than their meaning. To understand the construction of our written code, words, readers need to be able to reflect upon the spelling-to-sound correspondences. To understand that the written word, beginning readers must first have some understanding that words are composed of sounds (phonemic awareness) rather than their conceiving of each word as a single indivisible sound stream.

The development of this awareness cannot be accomplished in one simple step but rather over time. It is also important to note that these skills are actually pre-reading skills. Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren do not necessarily recognize any of these elements on the page but rather by ear.

The stages of phonological development toward the end goal of deep phonemic awareness can include:

~ Recognition that sentences are made up of words.
~ Recognition that words can rhyme & the ability to make rhymes
~ Recognition that words can be broken down into syllables & the ability to do so
~ Recognition that words can be broken down into onsets and rimes & the ability to do so
~ Recognition that words can begin with the same sound & the ability to make these matches
~ Recognition that words can end with the same sound & the ability to make these matches
~ Recognition that words can have the same medial sound(s) & the ability to make these matches
~ Recognition that words can be broken down into individual phonemes & the ability to do so
~ Recognition that sounds can be deleted from words to make new words & the ability to do so
~ Ability to blend sounds to make words
~ Ability to segment words into constituent sounds

Phonemic awareness is more complex however than simple auditory discrimination, which is the ability to understand that cat and mat are different words. To be able to describe how they are similar and how they are different demonstrates a level of phonemic awareness. Young Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren are not normally asked to consider words at a level other than their meaning, although experience with rhymes may be the first indication for Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren that they can play with the structure of words.

Learning to recognize and play with rhyme is often the beginning of phonemic awareness development for many Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren. To be aware that words can have a similar end-sound implies a critical step in learning to read. Sensitivity to rhyme makes both a direct and indirect contribution to reading.

Directly, it helps Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren appreciate that words that share common sounds usually also share common letter sequences. Later exposure to common letter sequences then makes a significant contribution to reading strategy development.

Indirectly, the recognition of rhyme promotes the refining of word analysis from larger intra-word segments (such as rhyme) to analysis at the level of the phoneme (the critical requirement for reading).

Studies show a very strong relationship between rhyming ability at age three and performance at reading and spelling three years later. A number of studies have reinforced the value of such early exposure to rhyming games.

Rhyming and phoneme awareness are related. Studies have shown that Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren who are capable of good discrimination of musical pitch also score high on tests of phonemic awareness. Since pitch change is an important source of information in the speech signal, it may be that sensitivity to small frequency changes, such as that involved in phoneme recognition is an important aspect of successful initial reading. Such results raise the interesting possibility that musical training may represent one of those pre-reading, home-based experiences that contribute to the marked individual differences in phonemic awareness with which Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren start school.

So, what do you teach? Techniques that target phoneme awareness most frequently involve direct instruction in segmenting words into component sounds, identifying sounds in various positions in words (initial, medial, final), identifying words that begin or end with the same sound, and manipulating sounds in a word such as saying a word without its beginning or end sound.

Most of the phoneme awareness activities should not take more than 15 or 20 minutes to complete. Although a particular activity can be selected well in advance, the specific words targeted for phoneme awareness should be selected from material familiar to your Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenager — such as a book you recently read together or a game or a family outing. Phoneme awareness activities are a natural extension of the shared reading activities.

A natural and spontaneous way of providing Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren with exposure to phonemes is to focus on literature that deals playfully with speech sounds through rhymes. Simple rhyme patterns are easily recalled after repeated exposure, and Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren will get the idea of creating new rhymes. In “There’s a Wocket in My Pocket” (Seuss, 1974), initial sounds of everyday objects are substituted as a Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenager talks about the strange creatures around the house, such as the “zamp in the lamp.” Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren can make up their own strange creatures in the classroom such as the “zuk in my book.”

Alliteration is the repetition of an initial consonant sound across several words, such as presented in the alphabet book “Faint Frogs Feeling Feverish” and “Other Terrifically Tantalizing Tongue Twisters”.

Assonance, the repetition of vowel sounds within words, is often combined with rhyme, as in “It rains and hails and shakes the sails” from “Sheep on a Ship” or in humorous ways such as “The tooter tries to tutor two tooters to toot” in “Moses Supposes His Toeses Are Roses”. Some books include music to go with the rhymes, such as “Down by the Bay”, in which two Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren try to outdo one another in making up questions that rhyme, such as “Did you ever see a goose kissing a moose?”

Spend some time in the Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren’s section of your library or browse through your Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenager’s bookshelves at home to look for books that deal playfully with language. Read and reread the stories and comment on the language use then encourage predictions of sound, word, and sentence patterns (for example, “What sound do you hear at the beginning of all those words?”) and invent new versions of the language patterns utilized in the stories.

Research has demonstrated not only a predictive relationship between phoneme awareness and reading success, but also a causal relationship.
Phoneme awareness that has a positive impact on reading can be developed in Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren through systematic instruction. Early training in phoneme awareness should be a priority for those interested in improving early reading instruction and in reducing reading failure.

Some other activities include:

Making Word Families Charts: Charts can contain words from one story or a brainstormed list from the Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren. The Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren can dictate the words to be placed on a word family chart. As they begin to develop letter/sound knowledge, they can copy or write the words themselves. You can use magnetic letters to “create” words for a word family chart. Provide a rime of plastic letters (e.g., at) and have the Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren take turns placing different letters in the onset position to create new words (e.g., hat, bat, sat, rat). These charts can be used as reference charts (or the Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren can make their own word families reference book) for spelling and creative writing activities.

Odd Word Out: Four words, three of which rhyme, are presented (e.g., zveed, bead, pill, seed). The Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenager determines which word is the odd one that doesn’t belong with the others. The game of concentration or memory is a good practice activity for rhyme recognition.

Alliteration: Sound personalities can be introduced naturally and in context by selecting a particular sound to talk about that is stressed in alphabet or other books that use alliteration. For example, presenting “smiling snakes sipping strawberry sodas” for the alphabet letter S. It is helpful to create or provide pictures that represent these sound personalities and to post them as each is introduced. A natural connection can sometimes be made between the sound and the letter, such as presenting a picture of “Sammy snake” drawn in the shape of the letter S or “Buzzy bee” flying in a pattern of the letter Z. Besides providing a label to facilitate talking about sounds, the pictures provide self-correcting cues for Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren engaged in initial-sound isolation and sound-to-word matching activities.

Counting: To count syllables in words, activities can be used such as clapping hands, tapping the desk, or marching in place to the syllables in Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren’s names (Ma- ry), items in the immediate environment (win- dow), or words from a favorite story (wi-shy, wa-shy). Initially, two- syllable words can be targeted, building up to three.

Sound Synthesis: Sound synthesis can be done using the following sequence: blending an initial sound onto the remainder of a word, followed by blending syllables of a word together, and then blending isolated phonemes into a word. Model this by blending an initial sound onto a word by using the jingle “It starts with /n/ and it ends with -ight, put it together, and it says night.” When they have the idea, the Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren supply the final word. An element of excitement can be created by using Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren’s names for this activity and asking each Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenager to recognize and say his or her own name when it is presented- “It starts with /m/ and it ends with -ary, put it together an
d it says ———.” Context can be provided by limiting the words to objects that can be seen in the room or to words from a particular story the Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren just read. As the Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren become proficient, they can take turns using the jingle to present their own words to be blended.

Sound-to-Word Matching: Requires that the Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenager identify the beginning sound of a word. Awareness of the initial sound in a word can be done by showing the Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren a picture (dog) and asking the Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren to identify the correct word out of three: “Is this a /mmm/-og, a /d/d/d/-og, or a /sss/-og?” A variation is to ask if the word has a particular sound: “Is there a /d/ in dog?” This can then be switched to “Which sound does dog start with-/d/, /sh/, or /1/?” This sequence encourages the Child, Juvenile, Kiddic, Minor & Teenagerren to try out the three onsets with the rime to see which one is correct. It is easiest to use continuants that can be exaggerated and prolonged to heighten the sound input. Iteration should be used with stop consonants to add emphasis.




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