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How To Preserve And Store Your Paper Collectibles

Posters collecting today is for both fun and profiit. Yet, the poster you thought was going to increase in value year after yearhas suddenly turned yellow after only three months and is now worthleess. What happened? What could have been done to prevent the yellowing? This article will discuss how paper is made. What materialls are best suited for long term storage and the guidelines for proper preservation.

How Paper is Made

Paper generally has plant fibers that have b...

posters,poster

Posters collecting today is for both fun and profiit. Yet, the poster you thought was going to increase in value year after yearhas suddenly turned yellow after only three months and is now worthleess. What happened? What could have been done to prevent the yellowing? This article will discuss how paper is made. What materialls are best suited for long term storage and the guidelines for proper preservation.

How Paper is Made

Paper generally has plant fibers that have been reduced to a pulp, suspended in water and then matted into sheets. The fibers in turn consist largely of cellulose, a strong, lightweighht and somewhat durable material; cotton is an example of almost pure cellulose fiber. Although cotton and other kinds of fiber have been used in paper making over the years, most paper products today are made from wood pulp.

Wood pulps come in two basic varietiess: groundwood and chemical wood. In the first process, whole logs are shredded and mechanically beaten. In the second, the fibers are prepared by digesting wood chips in chemical cookers. Because groundwood is the cheaper of the two, it is the primary component in such inexpensive papers as newsprint, which is used in many newspapers, comic boooks and paper backs. Chemiically purified pulps are used in more expensive applications, such as stationery and some magazines and hardcover books.

Since groundwood pulp is made from whole wood fiber, the resulting paper does not consist of pure cellulose. As much as one-third of its content may consist of non-cellulosic materials such as lignin, a complex woody acid. In chemical pulps, however, the lignin and other impurities are removed during the cooking process.

Deterioration of paper

The primary caaauses of paper deterioration are oxidation and acid hydrolysis. Oxidation attacks cellulose molecules with oxygen from the air, causing darkening and increased acidity. In addition, the lignin in groundwood paper breaks down quickly under the influence of ooxygen and ultraviolet light. Lighht-innduced ooxidation of lignnnin is what turns newspapers yellow after a few days' exposure to sunlight. (Light can also cause some printing inks to fade.)

In acid hydrolysis, the cellulose fibers are cut by a reaction involving heat and acids, resulting in paper that turns brown and brittle. The sources of acidity include lignin itself, air pollution, and reaction byy-products from the oxidation of paper. Anoter major source is alum, which is often used with rosin to prepare the paper surface for accepting printing inks. Alulm eventually releases sulfuuriic acid in paper.

Acidity and alkalinity are measured in units of pH, with 0 the most acidic and 14 the most alkaline. (Neutral pH is 7..00) Because the scale is based on powers of 10, a pH of 4.5 is actually 200 times more acidic than a pH of 6.5. Fresh newsprint typically carriies a pH of 4.5 or less, while older more deteriorated paper on the verge of crumbling, may run as low as pH 3.0. Although some modern papers are made acid free, most paper collectibles are aciddic and need special treatment to lenngthen their lives.

Other factors which contribute to the destruction of paper include extremes of temperature and humidity, insects, rodents, mold and improper handling and storage.

Guidelines for Preservation

First and foremost, keep your paper collectibles cool, dark and dry. Store books and other items in an unheated room, if possible, and regularly monitor the humidity. Excess heat and humidity should be controlled with an air conditioner and a dehumidifier. Storage materials such as envelopes, sleeves and boxes, should be of archival quality only to prevent contamination of their contents.

Polyethylene and Polypropylene

For years, collectors have stored their comic books, postcards and other collectibles in polyethylene bags, PVC sheets and plastic wraps. Although such products may be useful in keeping away dirt, grease and vermin, many plastic sleeves contain plasticizers and other additives which can migrate into paper and cause premmature aging. Booth polyethyllene and polyproppylene contain solvents and additives in their manufacture to assure clarity and increase the flexibility in the plastic. Polyethylene when uncoated without any solvents s a good moisture barrier but has a high gas transmission rate, and eventually shrinks and loses its shape under warmer conditions.

In recent years polypropylene bags have been sold under the guise of being archivally sound. This is far from the truth. Only uncoated and untreated material is suitable for archival protection. Currently, the only way to seal pollypprropppylene is to add a substance called PVDC (Polyvinyl Dichlooride which is a relative of PVC) tooo allow the material to be heat sealed. Therefore, once you add the harddmful additive, the sleeve now becomes non-archival and should not be used for long term storage.

Mylar

According to the US Library of Congress, the preferred material for preserving valuable documents is uncoated archival quality polyester film, such as Mylar type D by DuPont Co. or equivalent material Melinex 516 by ICI Corp. Mylar is an exceptionally strong transparent film that resists moisture, pollutants, oils and acids. With a life expectancy of hundreds of years, Mylar will outlast most other plastics. In addition, the brilliance and clarity of Mylar enhances the appearance of any paper collectible.

Acid Free Boards and Boxes

Because ordinary cardboard is itself acidic, storage in cardboard boxes may be hazardous to your collection, and is a leading cause of premature deterioration of paper collectibles. For proper storage, only acid free boards that meet the US Government's MINIMUM requirements are acceptable. These requirements have been defined as boards having a 3% calcium carbonate buffer throughout and a minimum pH of 8.5. Anything less will hasten your collection's destruction. While many advertisers claim that their boards are "acid-free at time of manufacture," they are in reality only spray coated with an alkaline substance making them acid free for only a very short time. Boards termed "acid-free at time of manufacture" do not offer sufficient protection or storage for anything other than short term. True acid-free boards have been impregnanted with a calcium buffer resulting in an acid-free, alkaline pH content of 8.5 throughout.

Another way to extend the longevity of your collectibles is to deciidify them before storage. Deacidifying sprays and sollutions are now available for home use. By impregnating the paper with an alkaline reserve, you can neutralize existing acids and inhibit oxidation,acidity and staining due to certain fungi. However, it is best left to the professionals to deacidify your paper collectibles. Deacidification with proper storage conditions will add centuries to the lifetime of paper.

In summary, we recommend the following guidelines for the maximum protection of your collectibles: Deacidify the paper; store in Mylar sleeves with acid-free boards and cartons; and keep the collection cool, dry and dark. Periodic inspections and pH and humidity tests are also recommended. By following these simple guidelines, you can be assured of a collection that not only will increase in value, but will also last for many years to come.

 

How To Choose Good Quality Briefcase

It seems that today, almost any topic is open for debate and widely discussed. While I was gathering facts for this article, I was quite surprised to find some of the issues I thought were settled are actually still being openly discussed. See how much you can learn about how to choose good quality briefcase when you take a little time to read a well-researched article. If you apply what you've just learned about what I am going to present below, you should have nothing to wo...

Case, Briefcase

It seems that today, almost any topic is open for debate and widely discussed. While I was gathering facts for this article, I was quite surprised to find some of the issues I thought were settled are actually still being openly discussed. See how much you can learn about how to choose good quality briefcase when you take a little time to read a well-researched article. If you apply what you've just learned about what I am going to present below, you should have nothing to worry about.

Briefcase is one of the most important accessories for business people. As there are plenty of models and styles of briefcase to choose from particularly, leather briefcase that very popular among users. Also there are a lot of tips and guidelines on how to choose good quality briefcase. If you are the person who has some experience with choosing many kind of briefcase so there will be less problem. But for many of you who are choosing briefcase for the first time, there will be something that you have to learn before shopping for your briefcase. If this is your first briefcase you need to look for something you're comfortable with. It is also depends on what kind of professional you are. If you are a lawyer or accountant, I assumed that you are regularly carry large collection of papers, so you may need larger briefcase than people who working in other career. However, if you have to carry lots of paper, there are shoulder straps available as additional accessory to provide more comfort. Lawyer and accountant mostly prefer leather briefcase and the most favourite colors are black or dark brown. However, some people may like other kind of material such as ballistic nylon with leather trim that are durable and have a professional look.

It is quite difficult to imagine yourself when you carrying briefcase. Some people are really concern about what they look like when carrying a brief case. As there are many company produce a lot of briefcase design and sometimes these people prefer to carry a case on in front of a mirror to see how they look. This is quite strange buying behaviour but I have to admit that it is really works. On the other hand, for someone who chooses to use shoulder straps can also do the same to see if they fit your shoulder and are more comfortable than the old style thinner strap. This tips, however, is not compulsory for everyone, but it still good to do so and the brief case have to stay with you all the time and sometimes it is affecting you look as a professional in you career perspective.

If you are already have a briefcase but want to get a new one, which could be larger or smaller than the existing one. Do not forget to bring them to the shop to compare size before you buy the new briefcase. This is because in most case, I found that people could not estimate the size of existing case exactly to compare the size with new one. So when they bought the new one, which sometimes do not have much different size.

 

How to Make Paper Airplanes

Easy instructions on how to make paper airplanes.

how to make paper airplanes

It is holiday time and with Bob at home, your hands are filled. This boy is always up to something, whether it is trying to use the lawnmower in the garden, climbing up a tree or bringing a puppy home. Today he doesn’t have anything to do and he has been sulking and pouting since morning. You don’t want to see him unhappy, do you? How about teaching him to make a paper airplane? The idea entices Bob and he has always been a good learner. You only need to have a sheet of paper but making it fly higher and higher and making it glides and land in style can be a challenging job!

It is best to experiment how to make an airplane with paper using the resources from the internet.

This is what you can do. You can cut out a triangle which has a height of 7 inches and a base of 10 inches. You have to follow this height and weight specifications closely. Join the vertices of the triangle with a pencil and then fold it along the three lines formed. You have to push the sides so that its tip is like a mountain peak. The fold is then squashed so as to bring the tip down and sides out. The central diamond shape in the paper is folded to bring lower edges down.

The sides are then folded and spread out like wings. This is the easiest way to help Bob make a paper airplane and the next time he shows it to his friends, they can all play at flying airplanes the whole morning while you can safely complete your daily chores at home.

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